The data collection for statistical analysis can be done with multiple ways. One such way is the Questionnaire collection method. It is a cost-effective and no time-consuming method for collecting data! However, a well-constructed questionnaire can take a lot of time in the construction phase -if it is made from scratch!
Questionnaire: A Little History
Some type of Questionnaire was used by U.S. Census Bureau in 1790 to collect some type of Census Data. Sir Francis Galton (1822 – 1911) was a talented person and he was who used extensively Questionnaires for studying “IQ” or “Genius”.
Questionnaire: What is it?
It can be defined as a method that includes Questions or Sentences in such form that can collect some type of information from people / participants. These Questions / Sentences are named Items of questionnaire.
Questionnaire: Media of Administration
A Questionnaire can be provided in a paper-and-pencil form, in an electronic / computer form which can include web-based form or online form or through email (email form).
Questionnaire: Method of Administration
A questionnaire can be completed by the participants themselves (a self-administered questionnaire – SAQ) or by the researchers. Moreover, a questionnaire can be administered individually or in a group (group administration).
Questionnaire: Type of Questionnaire Items Ι
A Questionnaire can be consisted of:
i) Only one question or sentence (Item), or
ii) More than one Item. Then, the Items of a questionnaire can originate from only one type or from multiple type of questions.
Questionnaire: Type of Questionnaire Items ΙΙ
The Type of Items of a Questionnaire can be divided in Two main categories together with their Pros and Cons:
i) Open-Ended Questions that can give an infinite space for the development of one’s opinion on a subject and
—Therefore it can require more time to be analyzed versus Closed-Ended questions and by
ii) Closed-Ended Questions which can force you to choose through a number of possible options/choices.
—Therefore, participants that would like to choose something else than the given set of options is unable to do so.
–But Closed-Ended Questions can be easier and quicker to be analyzed statistically
i) Open-Ended Questions
In these type of questions, a white space is provided to the participants which they can complete it by writing from a single word to long sentences. All other type of questions that will be presented are called Closed Ended questions.
—Such examples can be the following ones:—
i) “Write down what is your favorite fruit” OR
ii) “Write down your opinion for e.g. the financial Crisis problem”
ii) Closed-Ended Questions: Types
Closed-Ended Questions have a predefined set of given answer choices. The type of Closed-Ended Questions can vary according to the way its answers can be given or be chosen by the participant. Four main such categories exist:
Polar questions or two-point questions are Items that as an answer can take only a Yes / No or True / False. No other possible answers exist and therefore, they force a participant to choose between only these two options. Such example is the following question:
“Do you like to eat Fish?”: “Yes / No ?”
Two types of Multiple choice Questions exist:
i) Single-Answer type Questions which let you to choose only one answer from a predefine given set of answer choices e.g. A or L or N from A to Z and
ii) Multiple-Answer type Questions which let you choose more than one answer from a predefine given set of answer choices e.g. A and L and N from A to Z
A Multiple Choice Single-Answer example is the following:
“What IS your best favorite color in the following (5) options?”
…and you can choose only one color!
If the Question was differently stated: “What ARE your favorite colors?” Then, you could choose e.g. Blue, White, and Red in the same time.
A Question or statement can be answered on a Likert scale. Note that he question or statement tries to find what is the attitude of a participant or “how much” disagree or Agree on a statement. Only one Answer is allowed. Therefore, it tries to quantify the Verbal distance from “Disagree” to “Agree” in a similar relation to match corresponding Arithmetic symbols. Such examples are the following Questions with its given answers:
“How well are you feeling with your body?” and the answers can be provided in this form:
“5=Very well, 4=Somewhat Well, 3=Well, 2=Not Very Well, 1=Not At All” OR
“How much do you agree or Disagree that people must be kind?”
“5=Strongly Disagree, 4=Disagree, 3=Neither Disagree or Agree, 2= Agree, 1=Strongly Agree”
Note that a Likert-type scale assumes that the strength/intensity of an attitude is linear e.g. from “Very Well” to “Not At All Well” or from “Strongly Agree” to Strongly Disagree”. Moreover, it assumes that an attitude can be measured.
Ranking questions ask participants to order some sentences or words or something. Such example is the following Question:
“Please rank the significance that you put on the following statements – when you are in a Relationship: from 1 (Lowest Importance) to 5 (Highest Importance)”: